How to dry peas for seeds - harvesting seed

 How to dry peas for seeds - harvesting seed

The season ended with the harvest and overripe fruits remained on many legumes. Well, nature itself is giving the opportunity to stock up on seed for next year. But when to collect and how to dry peas for seeds so that they do not disappear over the winter and retain good germination, it is worth understanding in more detail.

Terms and order of collection

Considering that in recent years almost all of the sowing material costs a lot of money, and, moreover, its price is not always justified by the quality, many gardeners have already thought about harvesting their own seeds.

The readiness of the pods is determined by the appearance of a whitish mesh plaque on its valves.

Like other seed, it is recommended to harvest peas for sowing from the most productive, healthy bushes. While maintaining the varietal characteristics of the mother plant, there is a high probability that the planting of the next season will also delight you with an abundance of fruits. Therefore, when planning to prepare seeds at home, one should in advance, even during the period of maximum fruiting, mark the most promising bushes, tying them, for example, with a bright ribbon or marking them with a peg. It is even more rational to find pods with the maximum number of peas on them and wait for them to fully ripen. Thus, only the best of the best will get into the seed material, in sufficient quantities and, moreover, completely free.

Now about when to harvest peas. The readiness of the pods is determined by the appearance of a whitish mesh plaque on its valves, followed by their complete drying. If you do not have the opportunity to constantly observe the ripening of the pods, then you can simply cut off the selected bush and hang it up with its roots under a canopy. In this case, all young, still forming pods should be removed so that the remaining vitality of the plant is directed to the ripening of full-fledged seeds.

Video about picking peas for seeds

It is possible to collect seed material at home at the beginning of fruiting. If, in your absence at the dacha or through an oversight on the site, the first pods of green peas have already overripe, become rough and tasteless - do not throw them away, really? In this case, it remains just to wait for the appearance of whitish "cobwebs" on the valves, indicating the ripening of the fruit. After that, they are carefully cut with scissors together with twigs and tied in several pieces and also sent under the canopy for ripening.

Advice! Even if you pick still green pods, the readiness of which you doubt, there is a high probability that they will still "reach" during drying. The main thing is to hang them in a cool, shady, well-ventilated place and in 2-3 weeks the seeds will ripen and dry out.

It should also be said about the weather conditions. Collecting peas for seeds must be carried out in dry weather, otherwise you can get low-quality seed. The fact is that if a couple of days before there were even slight precipitations or morning fogs, the pods could be saturated with moisture, and their peas could germinate.

Drying rules and times

When the bush is completely dry, and the pea flaps have acquired a characteristic brown hue, they can be removed from drying for peeling.

Qualitatively selected and prepared seed, you still need to properly save

We choose the fullest pods with the maximum number of beans, cut them from the bush with scissors or cut them off by hand. Then, slightly pressing on the flaps, we release the peas. In the process of peeling, immediately rejecting the bad ones - blackened, irregularly shaped or damaged by pests.

Video about growing peas

Then the peas must be completely dried and now it is better to do it at home. To do this, it is scattered in one layer on paper or a linen napkin spread on the table and left for about five to seven days. During this time, the peas dry out completely.

Storage conditions

Qualitatively selected and prepared seed, you still need to properly save it so as not to lose its germination. It is best to store any seeds in paper bags, boxes or small linen bags.

It is best to store any seeds in paper bags.

As for the storage location, ordinary room conditions are suitable, where high humidity, freezing temperatures and the invasion of pests (small rodents, weevils, various larvae and worms) are excluded.

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Shallots are popular in many countries. His homeland is Asia Minor, from where he came to the Mediterranean. Now shallots are successfully cultivated in Western Europe, Ukraine and Moldova, in the Caucasus and Transcaucasia.

In different countries and regions, shallots are called differently: nesting onions, family onions, kuschevka, shrike. All names apply.

Shallot belongs to the onion species, but differs from it both in taste and in the shape of the bulb. A feature of the family onion is its multi-priming, that is, from 3 to 20 heads are formed in one nest, as well as feathers that are thinner than that of onions, and have a weak waxy coating. Among the main advantages of the shallot are the following:


How to store onions in the winter at home

Everyone knows that onions can be stored until the next harvest without noticeable changes in appearance, without loss of taste and nutritional properties. True, there are some losses as a result of spoilage of this healthy vegetable. Reducing to a minimum indicator of negative consequences is achieved by properly preparing the onion for storage and ensuring proper conditions for this entire period.

In addition to the selection of bulbs that have reached the stage of full ripening, strict adherence to the rules of agricultural cultivation, harvesting and preparation for storage is of considerable importance. In addition, it is necessary to observe the appropriate temperature and humidity requirements necessary to ensure the conditions of physiological rest.

Preparing onions for storage

You should start worrying about the future safety of the bulbs immediately after harvesting from the beds. Harvesting usually begins in the month of August, when the process of pouring the fruit coincides with the thinning of the necks, yellowing and lodging of the leaves. Depending on the variety, the ripening period can be either 90 or 120 days.

Since long-term storage of products is planned, a number of precautions have to be observed:

  1. Harvest onions only in dry weather.
  2. In order to avoid injury to the bottom, it is pre-dug in and neatly placed in the boxes.
  3. It is categorically impossible to pull out the onion, throw it on the ground and remove the adhering earth by tapping.

Drying onions

Since dried onions will be better stored, even before the leaves are removed, they are laid out in a thin layer in a place where unhindered air circulation is guaranteed. And in bad weather, when there is no possibility of outdoor placement, the fruits are placed on the veranda, on the balcony, on the floor, on shelves under a canopy. Drying in bunches hung under a canopy or in a room where there is a draft would also be a good option. Well, if you have to perform this procedure in an apartment, then you should use an oven in which the lowest possible temperature is set. To avoid drying out and cracking of the bulbs, alternate turning the oven on and off.

Trimming with scissors is carried out only after the completion of the pre-drying phase. The most important thing here is not to damage the bottom of the bulb. That is why it is recommended to leave the roots and neck at the level of 4-6 cm. The cleaning of cracked husks and earth is carried out as carefully as possible. Then they move on to the final drying stage (always with constant stirring) within 2 weeks. The final drying process is the selection of bulbs with dry, closed necks that are free of the slightest damage or growth.

Sorting

One of the conditions for the future safety of fruits will be the preference for late and sharp varieties of culture. Since it is very important to reach the degree of ripeness, the harvest is carried out at a strictly appointed time.

Due to the high demand for the sweet Yalta variety, which grows exclusively in Crimea, it should be discussed separately. The fact is that these plants are not particularly keeping quality. It is unlikely that it will be possible to keep it longer than 120 days without hints of germination. It is here that we must try to observe the strictest adherence to the technology of growing, harvesting and storing such a capricious Yalta variety.

Only the inhabitants of the peninsula are perfectly familiar with the secrets of onion storage, surprising potential buyers with a beautiful view of bundles. If you decide to buy this sweet variety, then hang the entire bundle in your kitchen or pantry. It is best to keep the Yalta variety in this position.

How to store onions in winter

Nice work on drying and sorting onions? Now is the time to move it to the container prepared in advance.

  • wooden boxes or crates
  • wicker baskets
  • cloth bags
  • storage nets for vegetables
  • nylon stockings.

Moreover, boxes and boxes should have ventilation holes, and the height should not go beyond 30 cm. When choosing bags and nets, they are guided by medium sizes, where the onion layer will not be thicker than 30 cm.If you are faced with a dilemma: place it in several boxes (bags) or poured into one large, prefer the first option. And don't listen to those "gossip»That it is advised to put onions in plastic bags for storage. Due to the fact that this material creates difficulties in air circulation and moisture removal, fogging of the vegetable and rot will be inevitable.

Duration of storage and minimization of losses is ensured by timely checks. 2-3 times during this period, it is revised for the presence of spoiled fruits, which are immediately thrown away. If you observe the dampness of the product, it should be immediately dried and transferred to another, ideally dry container.

The most effective way of storing in an apartment in winter is to put onions in bundles or braids. For convenient weaving, twine is added to dry, uncut leaves. In addition to increasing preservation, braids and bundles make the interior of the kitchen much more attractive and colorful. And since this vegetable contains phytoncides, there is every reason to make sure of its disinfecting properties.

Choosing a place to store onions

Taking into account the special requirements for the storage conditions of onions, only dark and cool places are chosen for this. Most often they use the cellar or basement. In an apartment, it is best to keep it on the balcony.

Recommended storage temperature and humidity

Please note that different varieties have their own requirements for the conditions of winter lying:

  • Semi-hot, sweet onions - from 0 to -1 ° С
  • Spicy varieties - from -1 to -3 ° С.
  • Humidity requirements vary within 75 — 90%.

The most suitable conditions can be achieved by placing the onions in the basement for the winter. As for the apartment, here the temperature and humidity are equated to the following indicators: from +18 to + 22 ° С and humidity 50 - 70%.

Keeping the temperature at the right level is less difficult than keeping the humidity level constant. If increased moisture levels lead to the release of the bulb from dormancy and germination, silk rot and mold, then a decrease is the way to drying out the fruits.

Reliable and correct storage of onions in winter for food purposes is achieved through 3 methods, characterized by different temperature conditions:

  1. Cold method, designed for a temperature of 0 -3 ° C.
  2. Warm when the temperature ranges from +18 to + 22 ° С.
  3. Combined or cold-warm storage provides in the fall from +18 to + 22 ° С in winter - from 0 to -3 ° С (the need for sharp cooling) in the spring - from +1 to + 22 ° С.

Advice

In preserving the plant, zealous owners use a set of special tricks:

  • Drying of onions in combination with maximum air access from all sides using shell nets.
  • Pouring over the fruit with your own husk, as one of the best methods of protection against excessive drying out.
  • Reduction of excessively high humidity in the basement, achieved by placing containers with ash, shavings or lime there, ensuring the rapid absorption of moisture.

Conclusions.

Considering the mass of subtleties recommended for storage, gardeners will not have difficulties with ensuring even the longest preservation of the beneficial properties and presentation of the onion. Thanks to the recommendations received, all the rules of cleaning, preparation for storage and the procedure for its preservation will be followed. And not only have you received a whole set of useful tips and can always use them in practice. In addition, no one will prevent you from sharing your knowledge with other people and being known as an expert on the issue of onion conservation from autumn to spring.


The use of shandra

In traditional medicine, Shandra vulgaris is rarely used. But it is actively used in folk recipes, collecting and drying in advance.

It is possible to purchase Horsemint in pharmacies, where it is available in crushed form

In folk medicine

Considering the medicinal properties and contraindications to the use of Shandra vulgaris, the herb is used for various diseases.

For jaundice, inflammatory processes in the stomach and intestines, menstrual irregularities, prepare the following infusion: 2 tsp. chopped shandra ordinary pour 250 ml of cold water and insist from 3 to 4 hours. The resulting medication should be divided into 4 doses.

Useful for the body and taking fresh juice 3-4 times a day. Honey is added to it before use.

To combat senile asthma 2 tsp. raw materials are poured with 500 ml of cooled boiled water and left for 4 hours, having previously closed the container. Divide the infusion into 50 ml portions, sweeten with honey before use.

With the depletion of the body, the following infusion of Shandra ordinary helps: 2 tsp. crushed plants are poured with 200 ml of boiling water and insisted in a closed container for 2 hours. After the strained medicine should be consumed in 1 tbsp. l. 20 minutes before the main meal.

With gastrocardiac syndrome, the following mixture helps: shandra, thyme and centaury mix 30 g each. Add 2 tsp in 200 ml of boiling water. the resulting mixture and leave for 5 minutes. A day should be consumed from 200 to 400 ml of infusion. You should not prepare the medicine in advance: the maximum effect is observed when it is taken fresh.

In cosmetology

The drug is used in this industry, adding to the following cosmetic products:

  • creams and ointments intended for sensitive skin, to protect the epidermis from external factors, as a soothing agent for the skin
  • wound healing preparations.

Common Shandra is also found in health products as one of the components.


Wait until the cucumber becomes soft and yellow-brown in color. But each variety may have its own characteristics. For some more time, the vegetable can be ripened after harvesting in a dry, warm place. Ripening is allowed for the next 2-3 weeks.

Different varieties of ripe cucumbers may look different.

Sometimes it is recommended to pluck the seed fruits after the frost, so that the vegetable undergoes stratification in the summer heat and winter frosts. This will help you get a bountiful harvest next year.


Growing features

Garden bed preparation

Red Baron onions are unpretentious in their care, but with the right choice of soil and preparation, you can get the maximum yield and average weight of the bulbs.

A place for future onion planting is being prepared in the fall. For this, a well-lit area with a deep groundwater bed is chosen.

The land on the site is mixed with peat at the rate of 2 buckets of fertilizer per 1 square meter of area.

If the onion is planned to be grown for greens, add 1 tbsp. spoon of potassium nitrate per square meter. To obtain large juicy heads, superphosphate is added to the soil.

You can also use a universal fertilizer option. For 1 square meter they take:

  • 1 bucket of humus
  • 1 cup wood ash
  • 1 tbsp. a spoonful of superphosphate.

Fertilizer is applied in autumn or spring 15-20 days before planting seed or sowing seeds. The bed should be high if it is in a low area so that moisture does not come to the bulbs. The earth is well dug up, weeds are removed, fertilizers are applied and loosened.

Sowing seeds

Seeds undergo special training before sowing:

  • For hardening, the seed is immersed in hot water heated to 50-60 degrees for several minutes. Then they are left in the refrigerator for a day.
  • Then the seeds are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 1 hour.
  • After that, the seeds are kept for 18 hours in a growth stimulator Zircon or Epin. To do this, add 2-3 drops of the drug to 200 ml of water. You can add 0.5 tsp to the same amount of water. honey mixed with aloe juice.
  • Dry the seeds before sowing.

Seeds are sown in the ground in late April or early May, when the risk of night frosts has passed. The main thing is not to miss the dates, since at the end of August a cold snap will come, rains and bulbs can rot. Sowing rules:

  • In the garden, furrows are made 1.5 cm deep.
  • Leave 20-25 cm in the aisle.
  • The beds are watered with warm water.
  • Seeds are spread in prepared furrows, leaving an interval of 8-10 cm from each other.

Advice! It is better to sprinkle light sand on the bottom so that you can see where the seeds are.

Further, the planting is sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. The beds can be covered with foil until shoots appear. The seeds should germinate within 15-20 days.

Planting sevka

Important! In autumn, seedlings are planted 15-20 days before the onset of frost. Depending on the region, this period falls on October-November.

When planting in winter, the crop can be harvested 2 months earlier than when planting in spring.

Important! In the spring, seedlings are planted in early May. With an earlier planting, arrows will begin to form, with a later one, you can get a weak harvest.

In most regions of Russia, it is recommended to grow Red Baron red onions from sets. Thus, in May, you can already get a green feather, and in August, collect ripe heads. To get a rich harvest of healthy and juicy bulbs, the seed must be properly prepared:

  • 3-4 days before planting, the tips are trimmed for better feather growth.
  • Sevok is soaked in hot water at a temperature of 35-40 degrees for 12-15 hours.
  • It is also recommended to hold the bulbs for 30-60 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
  • Dry the onions before planting.

Sevok can be planted in open ground when the air temperature warms up to 10-15 degrees. At a higher temperature, the fruits will be less juicy and slightly bitter. At an earlier date of planting, there will be a lot of green mass, and the heads will remain small.

Beds are made on the site, grooves in them are marked at a distance of 20 cm.The bulbs are immersed 3-4 cm into the ground with an interval of 10 cm from each other. Then everything is sprinkled with earth and watered well.

Onion care

To get a rich harvest of Red Baron onions, you need to properly care for them. The care is as follows:

  • loosening
  • watering
  • weed removal
  • thinning onions
  • protection against diseases and pests
  • top dressing.

Watering is carried out from a watering can with very small holes 1-2 times a week in May and July. Watering frequency is adjusted depending on weather conditions. Immediately after that, the soil is loosened to a depth of 3 cm. Weeds are removed at the same time.

If you planted onions with seeds, so that the onions grow large, the seedlings must be constantly thinned:

  • After the appearance of the first feather, 1.5 cm is left between the two plants.
  • When 2 and 3 feathers appear, the distance between the plants is 3 cm.
  • With the advent of 4 feathers, the distance is increased to 10 cm.

Fertilize onions several times per season, depending on the growing season, with different dressings:

  • When forming 3 feathers, fertilize with a solution of mullein in a ratio of 1:15 to water, or chicken droppings (1:12 to water). Also, 1 tbsp. Is added to this solution in a ratio of 10 liters of water a spoonful of superphosphate.
  • Then, every 15-20 days, the plants are fertilized with potassium sulfate (1.5 tablespoon), superphosphate (1 tablespoon), which are diluted in 10 liters of water.
  • It is recommended to stop watering and feeding from mid-July.

Important! For the formation of larger heads, 3 weeks before the planned harvest, the soil must be raked off from the bulbs.

Diseases and pests

Most often, Red Baron onions are affected by downy mildew, onion and carrot flies, as well as rot. Some diseases affect the bulbs or feathers, while others affect the entire plant at once. It is necessary to fight these diseases by spraying the plantings with fungicides. The first processing of plants is carried out after the emergence of seedlings. Further, the planting is processed after 7-10 days or 10-15 days, depending on the weather (in the heat, processing is carried out less often).

Harvesting and storage

Red Baron onions are harvested in mid-August. By this time, the feather should lie on the ground and turn yellow. Cleaning is carried out in dry weather, then the heads will be well stored in winter. If it rains constantly, then the collected bulbs are dried at a temperature of 45 degrees for 1-2 days.

The bulbs are well pulled out of the ground. After collecting, you need to cut the roots. The feather is cut off, leaving 5-10 cm. Then the heads are laid out in one layer on plywood and dried in the sun. It is better if the air temperature is warmed up to 25 degrees. In rainy weather, it is better to dry the onions in the veranda or attic. The heads will dry out within 2-3 weeks. Then they can be sent for storage.

Before that, they must be sorted. Small, unripe overripe bulbs are consumed immediately. Large and medium heads are sent for storage. They are stored in bundles in a cool dry place. You can also store the bulbs in boxes.


DIY seeds - blank

1. Inflorescence of onion with seeds (nigella) 2. Seeds of cucumber after drying 3. Isolation of seeds from soft fruits of tomato 4 and 7. Ripe inflorescences of carrots and table beets 5. Inflorescence and ready-to-harvest cabbage seeds 6. Collecting tomato seeds with a spoon 8. Inflorescence and ready-to-harvest cabbage seeds 9. These should be good tomato seeds

© V.Ludilov, M.Ivanova All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing

Note: In August, mother plants require careful care - those from which we will collect seeds. And remember: only varieties are suitable for this, hybrids are not suitable, even if they give viable seeds, the harvest will not justify expectations. We select the strongest, absolutely healthy plants for mother plants, the fruits of which correspond to varietal characteristics.

The easiest way to get seeds of self-pollinating crops - tomatoes, eggplants, peas, chickpeas, lettuce, beans, lentils. And in order to obtain good seeds from cross-pollinated plants - cucumbers, carrots, onions, sorrel and others, it is necessary that no other varieties of these crops or their wild ancestors be grown within a radius of at least 400-500 m.

For tomato, pepper, cucumber, eggplant seeds, we take fruits from the first 2-3 brushes or lower ovaries, which are well ripened to physiological ripeness, but not overripe (in tomato and pepper, seeds from overripe fruits have low germination). Take out the tomato seeds with a spoon along with the juice and leave them in a glass container for several days. After the juice ferments or starts to grow moldy, rinse the seeds and dry them. We remove the seed fruits of the cucumber only after the stalk dries.

Then we leave the testes to lie down for about 2 more weeks, and only after that we select the seeds together with the pulp into the bowl, rinse them and dry them, like tomato seeds, after fermentation. Popular wisdom advises taking seeds only from those cucumbers that have four seed chambers, and not three, and only from the upper half of the cucumber.

In pepper, we extract seeds from fresh, elastic fruits, without waiting for them to wilt. We remove the eggplants for seeds from the bush when their color changes to brown, brown-yellow or brown, the seeds should already be hard, we wash them and dry them immediately. Seed plants of vegetable peas, beans are uprooted when the pods turn yellow, beans - when the lower pods turn black. We tie the plants in bunches and hang them for ripening and drying in dry sheds. In umbellates (dill, carrots, parsley, parsnips, celery and others) - we cut off the central, not side umbrellas for seeds, we also ripen them. We collect seeds in the morning, in good sunny weather.

HALF A CENTURY SEED WITH ITS TOMATO SEEDS

For many years I have been harvesting tomato seeds like everyone else. Half a century! I chose it with a spoon, put it in jars, covered it so that midges would not start, wait until it would be possible to free them from the covering film, washed it, dried it, packed it and signed it. What a hassle! Especially when there are 20 or more of these jars.

And for three years now I have been doing everything differently, and the quality of the seeds is excellent. And before that, what a sin to conceal, you run, forget, and here's a surprise for you: the seeds have sprouted! I had such a sad experience with Blagovest ...

For seeds, I select the most delicious, beautiful, sugary fruits on a break, sweet, without white or greenish pulp around the stalk. I take out the seeds, put them in a nylon sock, put them in water and grind them in water. I put the washed (as far as possible) seeds in a wire strainer and wipe them well, rinse them, then dump them on the paper more densely (not on the newspaper!) And smear them on this paper. I dry it, sign the name of the variety right on the paper, wrap it up and sign it again on top so as not to unfold and read what kind of tomatoes they are. Everything, the seeds are ready. In January, I take them out, throw them off the paper and put them in a rag. I rub it if they stick together somewhere, that's all.

Then I paste the seeds on toilet paper, having previously cut it into three strips lengthwise. I paste it every 2 cm, so that later I do not lay it out in a strong westerly wind that blows all spring, and do not stand hunched over for 2-3 days, since there is no high greenhouse (I have it a little more than 1 m in height).

And with glued seeds, I can handle it in just an hour! That's all there is to it.

Yes, I forgot: I dress the seeds, when I have sown, I water them with potassium permanganate right on the ground.

And now I propose a recipe for salting large tomatoes in a large container (barrel, tub, etc.).

The main thing: when picking tomatoes from the garden, take them with stalks and carefully place them in a container so that the peel remains intact.

For pickling I take tomatoes large, dense and always with a stalk. With small curved scissors, I cut off the sepals and cut off the stalks so that when laying the tomatoes I do not violate the integrity of the skin.

I lay them in layers, sprinkling each layer with spicy herbs (currant leaves, cherries, dill, celery, lovage, etc.).

These greens must be torn and rubbed to enhance the smell.

So gradually I fill the container to the brim, leaving room for the mug. In this case, all tomatoes must be completely covered with brine.

Sprinkle allspice with peas on top, fall asleep with herbs and cover the entire surface with horseradish leaves. I also recommend sprinkling with mustard seeds. I immediately place the containers in a cold place (cellar).

Then I cover the contents with cotton canvas and fill it with cold water (I take it from the well - it is clean). At the same time, I must count the number of liters - after all, a certain amount of salt must be put.

And on this gingham I sprinkle salt (not iodized!) At the rate of 900 g per 10 liters of water, distributing it evenly over the entire surface of the gingham. Then I put a circle and press down with a 3-liter jar of water so that the tomatoes do not look out of the brine.

If it turns out that the brine is not enough, add it at the rate of 50-60 g of salt per 1 liter of water. And that's it - in a month the most delicious tomatoes are ready!

If over time you have not used them up, remove, peel, chop and use as a dressing for borscht. By the way, such a dressing is preserved perfectly without any boiling. The borscht turns out to be incredibly tasty! I treated no one, everyone was delighted and tried to find out the secret of how I manage to cook such a wonderful borscht ...


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