Cultivation and healing properties of scorzonera - Scorzonera Hispanica

Cultivation and healing properties of scorzonera - Scorzonera Hispanica

The root that heals.

Scorzonera (Scorzonera Hispanica L.) or scorchioner, aka black root, sweet root, Spanish root, goat - this is a root vegetable crop, which is rarely widespread in our country, from the Asteraceae family (Compositae)

Of 170 types of scorzoneracommon in the world, on the territory of the CIS 80... They are found from the Caucasus to Siberia, the Baltic States, Central Asia and Ukraine. Despite the fact that the roots of several species are edible, now only one species is cultivated - as a vegetable and medicinal crop. Root crops (to a lesser extent - leaves) are rich in sugars (about 20%), vitamins C, B1, B2, salts of potassium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus, calcium. But its main advantage is the high content of inulin in root crops (about 10%), as well as asparagine and levulin. It is just medicine for diabetics. In addition, scorzonera root crops contain up to 2% pectin substances. And she is also a good honey plant.

Scorchonera is still not very popular in Russia, although it can be cultivated up to the northernmost regions of the European part of the Russian Federation. It is widely used in North America, Western Europe (France, Belgium, Holland, etc.), and the Baltics.

There are few scorchonera seeds on the Russian market. The varietal diversity of this culture is not rich in our country, which, in the first place, explains its weak distribution. However, in the "State Register of the Russian Federation ... 2004" there is already a variety Solnechnaya premiere of the Stavropol Research Institute of Agriculture. One of the Russian firms supplies seeds, apparently under the arbitrary name Gypsy, of clearly foreign origin. In the North-West of the Russian Federation, mainly local populations are cultivated, obtained from replanting old (XVIII - XX centuries) varieties such as Vulkan, One-Year Gigantic, Russian Gigantic, as well as collection samples of scientific institutions, amateurs, which, as a rule, are exchanged by "experts". In the store, the gardener can only buy seeds of foreign varieties (as a rule, the variety is not indicated). These are either German Schwartz Pfal, Schwartz Peter, or Dutch Pronora, Prodola, Pilotis, Duplex. One of the Danish firms supplies seeds of the Einjarige rizen variety.

Growing scorzonera

Scorzonera produces good yields only on neutral, humus-rich, fertilized, deeply (30-40 cm) cultivated soils. On clayey, dense soils, as well as when applying fresh manure, root crops turn out to be ugly, branch, and you cannot get a full harvest. The culture is responsive to mineral fertilizers.

Scorchonera seeds large, 15-20 mm long, about 1.5 mm thick, ribbed, grayish. The mass of 1000 seeds is 15-20 g. It is better to sow with fresh seeds (germination is maintained for 1-2 years). It is better to germinate them for 5-7 days at a temperature of 25C. After 10 days, the germinated are selected and sown, the rest are washed and germinated for another 5-7 days, then sown. Sowing pattern 20x8-10 cm, seeding depth 2-3 cm.

In the conditions of the Leningrad region, they are usually sown in mid-May. Seedlings appear on 4-10 days at a temperature of about 20C. To shift the dates of use to earlier, sowing can be done in July and September.

Care consists in watering, weeding. The crops are fed twice a month until mid-August with complex mineral fertilizers with microelements.

Root vegetables ready for harvest 100-110 days after germination. They begin to be harvested after two months of growth, however, they are usually harvested for storage in mid - late September when the mass reaches 100-150 g. Moreover, root crops, for example, Schwarz Peter varieties, should not be overexposed, otherwise they will sag. Old Russian varieties as well as new Dutch varieties are less capricious.

When cleaning root crops must be buried in, freed from the soil by hand.

I put only non-injured, healthy roots in boxes with sand. The sand is kept moist throughout the storage period. Part of the crops is left before winter and used immediately after thawing the soil, before shooting. Moreover, their taste only improves, but with the beginning of shooting it sharply deteriorates.

Considering that there are few scorpion seeds on the market, it is better to take care of them yourself. For this, part of the crops is left before winter. In early spring, the plants grow back and in June they throw out flower stalks. Inflorescence - basket, yellow flowers. As soon as the inflorescences look like a "fluffy" dandelion, they are plucked and laid out in a ventilated room for drying and ripening, and then rubbed. Well-ripened seeds usually germinate 80-90% in the first year, and only 30-40% in the second.

Scorchonera cultivation experience

Scorzonera root vegetables are prepared for future use in dried, frozen form. A substitute coffee is prepared from them. First of all, they use broken, injured specimens.

Scorzonera is an excellent ingredient in canned vegetables... A variety of dishes are prepared from its root crops.

Fresh root vegetables have a sweetish taste and are used to prepare a variety of salads, vinaigrettes, side dishes, soups, and drinks. In spring, for salads, they use bleached leaves, like those of an oat root.

Scorzonera recipes

V. Alekseev,
General Director of Poisk Petersburg LLC,
candidate of agricultural sciences


Scorzonera (black root) - growing from seeds, recipes

Scorzonera - a rare vegetable in our dachas. But noteworthy - it is very rich in inulin, vitamins, trace elements and belongs to medicinal plants.
Scorzonera helps patients with diabetes mellitus, normalizes metabolism, reduces weight, strengthens the body. There is information that it delays the growth of tumors, helps to cleanse the body of radionuclides.

In Western Europe, scorzonera has been bred since the XIV century, but for a long time it was considered only medicinal and was used for the plague and as an antidote for snake bites.
Scorzonera has a second name - “goat spanish". Sometimes it is also called “black carrot», «black root».

Description

Scorzonera (Scorzonera hispanica) - biennial plant, yellow flowers. In the middle lane, it is grown in a one- or two-year culture. In the first year of life, a rosette of leaves and a root crop are formed, in the second - flowering shoots.

It blooms exquisitely, attracting bees, although they do not need their help, as it is self-pollinated. Young leaves are used for salads.
Scorzonera root crop is dark brown with white flesh, thin and more often cylindrical than conical, 30-35 cm long, tastes like sweet asparagus, a bit like a cabbage stump. The yield is about 1.5-1.8 kg per square meter.

Peduncles appear in June. Scorchonera flowers open in the morning and close at noon, smelling wonderful vanilla. Lanceolate leaves.

Types and varieties

There are 170 species of scorzonera in the world, but there are only 3 varieties in the State Register of Breeding Achievements - Overseas delicacy, Healing, Sunny premiere.
There are also known varieties of Ordinary, Russian giant (late variety), One-year-old giant, Vulkan. All varieties are modern, XXI century, excellent taste with delicate white pulp.
You can buy seeds of foreign varieties: Schwartz Peter, Duplex.

Growing scorzonera

It can grow on any soil, but it is most productive and tasty in neutral, humus-rich, well-dug areas.

The best predecessors are crops for which organic fertilizers were applied: cucumbers, potatoes, beans, peas. Cannot be grown after carrots, celery and other plants of the same family as scorzonera.

To improve the soil before planting, you can add coarse sand, low-lying peat, rotted compost. For 1 m2 of beds, 1 tbsp is applied. spoon of ammonium nitrate and potassium salt, as well as 1.5 tbsp. tablespoons of superphosphate and 0.5 cups of wood ash.

The seeds of the scorpion are large, they do not retain germination for long, a couple of years, so it is better to sow fresh. They do this in May, July or September (before winter). Before planting, the seeds must be germinated (usually 5-7 days), it is better to do this in a damp cloth at room temperature. They plant those seeds that have begun to germinate, while the rest must be rinsed in running water and again try to germinate for another week. And then sow the sprouted ones.

Seeds are planted to a depth of 2 cm according to the scheme 25 × 10 cm, if the distance is reduced, the plants throw out arrows. Seeds can germinate in 2-3 weeks already at -1-4 ... -1-5 ° С, but the optimum temperature for plant growth is + 20 ° С.
After scorzonera forms 3-4 leaves, the plants are thinned out, leaving 5-8 cm between them.Then they are fed with ammonium nitrate and repeated feeding two more times during the growing season (that is, the crops are fed 1-2 times a month with complex mineral fertilizer with microelements (Universal, etc.).
During the summer, they loosen the soil 2-3 times. Watered once a week, in dry weather more often, 10 liters per 1 m2.
If flower arrows do appear on the plants in the first year, they are cut off.

Flowers with seeds are picked and laid out in a ventilated room for drying and ripening, and then rubbed. Well-ripened seeds have 80-90% germination in the first year, and only 30-40% in the second.

Root crops are harvested in late autumn, digging deeply and carefully removing. If they are accidentally damaged, milky juice will begin to flow out and the vegetables will quickly deteriorate. Store like carrots, sandwiched with wet sand or in perforated plastic bags.

Some of the plants are left before winter, slightly covered with tops or straw. Scorzonera is cold-resistant and frost-resistant. Dig in early spring immediately after the soil thaws. The taste of horse growers in the ground only improves. Those that did not have time to eat are grown for seeds after shooting. And this is right, because it is not easy to buy a scorzonera yet. Plus, your seeds are guaranteed to be fresh. When growing scorters, it must be borne in mind that self-sowing seeds can sometimes clog the site.

Scorzonera recipes

Young scorzonera leaves, which can be bleached, are used for salads. Root vegetables are used to prepare vinaigrettes, side dishes, soups, and drinks. You can use any recipe that works for cauliflower or asparagus.

Root crops can be preserved, since after processing they completely retain their nutritional properties.
Scorzonera root vegetable is an excellent component of canned vegetables - thanks to it, cucumbers, when salted, invariably turn out to be dense, crispy. Peel off the skin from root crops before use. To prevent the white pulp from darkening, the vegetables are immediately dipped in water acidified with lemon juice. Or washed, put unpeeled in boiling water, boiled almost until cooked, then kept in cold water for a couple of minutes, and then the skin is easily removed.

Scorchonera salad recipe
Root crops of scorzonera and carrots (1: 1) are washed, rubbed on a coarse grater with straws, sprinkled with lemon juice. Dill, onion and parsley are finely chopped, they should be a third by volume. Stir before placing on plates.


Beneficial features

The medicinal properties of the black root have been known for a long time. And not in vain, because this root vegetable is rich in sugars, vitamins C, B1, B2, salts of potassium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus, calcium. But its main advantage is the high content of inulin, which is necessary for diabetes mellitus.

Also, the black root is very useful for obesity, vitamin deficiency, anemia, atherosclerosis, inhibits the development of gout, rheumatism, polyarthritis. The use of the root improves metabolism and heals the body. Recently, information has even appeared that this plant is capable of removing radioactive elements from the body.

When buying a black root, choose thinner root vegetables - thick, often hollow inside and boil and become dry during cooking.

The easiest way to peel even and firm root vegetables is with a vegetable or asparagus knife. The latter also applies to the oat root (if you use it instead of the black root). Then the root vegetables are cut into strips and put in water acidified with lemon juice or vinegar so that they remain light.

The sticky milky juice that is released when cutting a vegetable and brown spots that appear on the skin or cutting board can be removed with the same lemon juice or vinegar. Before cooking, the root vegetables cut into strips, depending on their thickness, are boiled for a maximum of 10 minutes in salted water until half cooked.

If you still want to bake the root vegetables, deep-fry or freeze them, you only need to boil them slightly.


Advice: the washed and brushed roots can also be boiled in the peel and then immediately rinsed with cold water. Then the hard skin can be easily removed with a knife.

Black root recipes


Nutritional value (per 100 grams)

Black carrot, Spanish goat, snakehead, sweet root - these are all names of the same plant - scorzonera or scorzonera. In European countries and the USA, this representative of the Aster family is grown and used as a vegetable.... Traditional medicine especially appreciates the healing properties of scorzonera. The root of the serpentine is similar in appearance to the root vegetable of a carrot, but covered with a black peel, and its core is juicy and white.

Did you know? The homeland of the scorzonera is the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, the Asia Minor Peninsula, the Transcaucasus. The ancient Greeks noticed its usefulness. Already during the reign of Alexander the Great, they actively used the snakehead for the bites of poisonous snakes as an antidote... In XYIXYII centuries. Spanish goat fell to taste and took root in Holland, Germany, France (Louis XIV adored the taste of this root vegetable).


MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF SCORCONER

It is believed that scorzonera can replace an entire pharmacy and even compete with ginseng!

There is a lot of potassium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus in the black root. The plant contains inulin, fructose. Therefore, scorzonera is recognized as useful for diabetics. The main vitamins that are in the root and leaves: - C, E, B ,, Bg. PP, beta-carotene, amino acids, minerals, calcium, iron, phosphorus salts. A lot of protein, trace elements. In general, more than 100 biologically active substances were found in scorzonera.

Black root is used to normalize metabolism and dietary nutrition in diseases of the digestive system, strengthen the immune system and quickly recuperate after diseases and operations. There is evidence that scorzonera improves the well-being of cancer patients, has anti-radiation activity.


Beneficial features

Unassuming scorzonera has a lot of positive qualities, a rich composition. It has found its application in folk medicine, helping to successfully overcome diabetic disease, disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract, has a beneficial effect on prostatitis, oncology, rheumatism, cirrhosis. Many connoisseurs of medicinal crops choose scorzonera due to the following beneficial qualities:

  • Stimulating cardiac and renal activity
  • Natural anesthetic
  • Has a gentle soothing effect
  • Helps to normalize blood sugar levels
  • Removal of gallstone
  • Liberation of the body from harmful radionuclides
  • Acceleration of liver cell regeneration
  • Getting rid of alcohol addiction
  • Strengthening male potency.

Experts recommend that people of mature age more often use scorzonera raw or boiled, since it helps to get rid of many age-related diseases.

Contraindications

There are no special prohibitions on fresh consumption of scorzonera. It is recommended to consume the product for adults and children. The only exception is individual intolerance to the components of the product.

Scorzonera should not be overused as it has a mild laxative effect.During the onset of malaise, it is also worth refusing to consume the product in any form.

Also, with extreme caution, the product should be administered to young children of preschool age, since its consumption in its raw form can cause diarrhea. To begin with, the child is given 2 teaspoons of the product, tracking unpleasant reactions at the same time. If there are no undesirable reactions, then you can safely enrich the diet with this product.

Nutritional value

Nutritional value of scorzonera per 100 g: proteins - 1 g of fat - 1 g of carbohydrates - 1 g. The calorie content of the product per 100 g is 17 Kcal. This product has a truly rich composition - it contains over 100 biologically active components. It contains a huge amount of vitamin C, protein, phosphorus, natural calcium.

The special value of this product lies in the content of inulin, a substance that controls blood sugar levels.

Use in traditional medicine

In folk medicine, natural scorzonera juice is used, which can be prepared by pouring boiling water over the peeled roots, twisting them through a meat grinder. Healing juice is squeezed out of the resulting mixture. It is advised to take the composition of 1 tbsp. L. 3 weeks from urolithiasis, mixing them with natural honey in a 1: 1 ratio. In the form of local lotions, it is allowed to use scorzonera juice from periodontal disease, open sores, non-healing wounds.

Fresh broth from peeled roots is poured with a glass of boiling water, placed on low heat, then boiled for 10 minutes. After removing from heat, insist for another 10 minutes. The strained broth is consumed in a tablespoon 4 times a day with open bronchitis, ulcers, non-healing wounds.

Scorzonera root tea helps to overcome toxicosis during pregnancy. For this purpose, 1 teaspoon of granulated tea and crushed roots are mixed, brewed like regular tea.

Eating

The Spanish goat has a pleasant sweetish taste. In its raw form, the root is very similar to the cabbage stump. During the cleaning of the plant from the dense brown shell, sap begins to stand out, staining the fingers brown. To protect fingers from staining, gloves are worn or fingers are lubricated with natural sunflower oil. Scorzonera root can be used raw, fried and baked.

To taste Scorzonera raw, you need to soak the roots in salt water. Raw food recipes are simple:

  • Ingredients: 150 g of peeled raw roots of scorzonera, 8 leaves of fresh lettuce, onions, parsley, dill. Fresh root vegetables are rubbed, onions and herbs are cut, the salad is torn into pieces, everything is thoroughly mixed, and salted. In some versions of this dish, they take natural feta cheese, season with natural olive oil, sour cream
  • Fresh salad of carrots and scorzonera. Regular carrots and fresh roots of scorzonera are washed, peeled and chopped. Chopped greens, lemon juice are also added here, mixed. Season with light sour cream, mustard.

You can make scorzonera soup. This will require 2 root vegetables, cut into pieces, boil until soft in salted water. After cooling, they are rubbed into a homogeneous mass, placed back in the pan, then one yolk and 30 g of natural butter are added there. Soup is served with light sour cream.

It is very tasty and healthy to cook scorzonera with an egg. To do this, 500 g of root crops are cleaned, boiled in acidified water until soft. Then the resulting pieces are fried in butter on both sides. Then pour all this with 3 eggs beaten with salt, pepper, stir, fry until cooked. Spread on a plate, sprinkle with grated cheese.

After heat treatment, the roots of black carrots acquire a light vanilla smell and a vanilla flavor. To properly boil the goat, add lemon juice, salt and flour to the cold water at the rate of 1 tsp. for 1 liter. Scorzonera roots cut into pieces are placed in boiling water. This method of cooking helps the roots to retain their juiciness, will not allow them to boil.

Scorzonera, with proper care, is capable of producing good root crops, with which you can significantly diversify your diet, as well as use it for medicinal purposes.


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